The United States (English United States shortly US, US), officially United States of America (English United States of America; abbreviated USA), also briefly America (English America), are a federal republic consisting of 50 states, a federal district (capital Washington, DC), consists of five larger territories and several island territories. The 48 contiguous Continental United States and Alaska are in North America, while Hawaii and smaller outdoor spaces in the Pacific or in the Caribbean are. The largest by population city is New York. The United States is the third largest country in the world are measured at the surface of 9.83 million square kilometers (after Russia and Canada) and in terms of population of about 322 million inhabitants (after China and India). Due to the immigration of people from a variety of countries, the United States one of the most diverse ethnically and culturally diverse countries in the world are. The United States also have very high geographic and climatic diversity - with habitats such as mountains and plains, forests and deserts, which accommodate a wide variety of animal and plant species. Unlike in 31 states there is no legal official language at the federal level, but there is English as a de facto official language. In the southwest, as well as in Miami, the Spanish language is also widespread. Paleo-Indians migrated more than 13,000 years ago from Asia to the North American mainland is now the United States (Buttermilk Creek Complex) after they had several thousand years ago settled the day belonging to the United States Alaska. The European colonization began about 1600 mainly from England, but in protracted conflict with France. The United States is one of the Atlantic coast from the 13 colonies. Dispute between Great Britain and the American colonies led to the American Revolution. Delegates from the 13 colonies July 4, 1776, adopted the Declaration of Independence of the United States and thus the formation of the United States of America. The American Revolutionary War, which ended with the recognition of the independence of the United States, was the first successful war of independence against a European colonial power. Today the United States Constitution was adopted on September 17 1787th So far 27 additional items have been added. The first ten amendments, collectively known as the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791, guaranteeing a variety of inalienable rights. Driven by the doctrine of Manifest Destiny, the United States began a dynamic expansion across North America that spanned the 19th century. This included the forced displacement of indigenous, Native American tribes, the acquisition of new territories u. a. the Mexican-American War and the founding of a new state. The American Civil War led to the end of legal slavery in the United States. At the end of the 19th century, the United States reached an extension to the Pacific Ocean and its economy became the world's largest. The Spanish-American War and World War I confirmed the role of the United States as a global military power. The United States emerged as a superpower and as the first country with nuclear weapons and a permanent seat on the UN Security Council from the Second World War. After the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States is the only superpower. The United States is an industrialized country and the world's largest economy with a GDP of 15.6 trillion US dollars in 2012, which measured by the purchasing power parity of 2011 corresponds to 19\% of global economic output. The United States had in the period from 2010 to 2012, the world's sixth highest per capita income. According to the World Bank, the income inequality in the United States is one of the highest among OECD countries. The economic performance of the country is favored by the wealth of important natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure and a high average productivity. Although the economic structure of the United States is commonly regarded as a post-industrial, they are still one of the world's largest goods producers. The country was in 2012 responsible for 39\% of global military spending.
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