Senegal [zeːnegal] (French République du Sénégal [senegal]) is a country in West Africa. It extends from the foothills of the Sahara in the north, where the land is bordered by Mauritania, to the beginning of the tropical moist forest in the south, where the neighbors Guinea and Guinea-Bissau, as well as the cool Atlantic coast in the west to the hot Sahel region on the border with Mali. The southern parts of the French-speaking Senegal, the Casamance are separated by the profound to the East English statelet Gambia. The area of Senegal is part of the Islamic world since the 12th century and even today, more than 90\% of the 12 million inhabitants of the country are committed to Islam. After the region was ruled by several African kingdoms, it was in 1895 to a French colony in Africa. On August 20, 1960, Senegal became independent; he maintained a multiparty system and became one of the few democratic countries on the African continent. However, the reliance on a few export commodities such as peanuts, phosphates and fish, rapid population growth and government debt resulted from the 1980s to impoverishment and growing social tensions, including the secession movements in Casamance come since 1,982th Thus, Senegal has been dependent on loans from the industrial and oil countries and development aid.
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