Mongolia (officially in the Mongolian language Монгол Улс / Mongol Uls / mongɣol ulus, literally Mongolian State), between Central, Northern and East Asia, is to Kazakhstan in terms of area's second-largest landlocked country in the world. Mongolia has only two neighbors, Russia to the north and the People's Republic of China to the south. The country, four and a half times the size of Germany, is only inhabited by about 3 million inhabitants and is the most sparsely populated independent country in the world. The land is suitable because of its soil and its climate hardly for agriculture, mainly nomadic livestock industry operates. Its largest city is the capital Ulaanbaatar where live more than 40\% of the country's population. The territory of present-day Mongolia was, since it's settled, dominated by nomads who temporarily established realms, like the Xiongnu or the Xianbei. In 1190 succeeded Genghis Khan to unify the Mongols. This Mongol empire stretched at the height of his power over the eastern half of Europe and much of Asia, representing the largest contiguous empire in history; within the Mongol Empire, the pax mongolica established. The Mongols took over the rule in China, where they established the Yuan Dynasty. After the collapse of their empire in 1262, most Mongolians lived nomadic again; However, the four successor states still existed until the 16th century, but were only united at times. At the same time the country came under the influence of Buddhism, a little later, most of Mongolia was ruled by the Qing Dynasty. After its collapse Mongolia gained with Russian and later Soviet aid independence, 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed as the second socialist state history. As a result, the country made a development in parallel by the Soviet Union. After the revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe also occurred in Mongolia for political changes. 1992 democratic constitution was adopted and introduced the market economy. The transition from a planned to a market economy was accompanied by many problems and now lives despite at times of strong economic growth about one-third of the population in poverty. Mongolia is not to be confused with the points of People's Republic of China Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. For a more precise distinction what is now Mongolia has historically been referred to as Outer Mongolia.
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