The Principality of Monaco [monako] (French Principauté de Monaco, Monegasque de Principatu Munegu) is a southern European city-state and by the Vatican City is the second smallest country in the world. The glamorous and extremely densely populated state located on the French Mediterranean coast (Cote d'Azur) near the border with Italy. Monaco was an ancient trading post of the Phoenicians and later the Greeks who had built here on the north coast of the western Mediterranean a Temple of Hercules, which soon acquired the nickname Monoikos, "single house". As the place was a Roman port, he was named the Herculis Monoeci Portus, resulting in shortened Monaco was born. Today, Monaco is popular mainly among the rich of the world as a place of residence because the city government levies neither income nor inheritance tax and does not pursue committed abroad tax offenses. Companies in Monaco, however, pay taxes. The state is not a member of the European Union. 2014 Principality counted 37,800 inhabitants in an area of 2.026976 square kilometers (about 203 hectares) and has with 18,648 inhabitants per square kilometer, the highest population density of all States. In 2008, of the total population, 78.5 percent of foreigners without Monegasque citizenship.
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