Kazakhstan [kʰazaχˌstʰaːn] (Kazakh Қазақстан [qɑzɑqstɑn] Transcription: Qasaqstan; Russian Казахстан [kəzɐxstan] Transcription: Kazakhstan) is a landlocked country between the Caspian Sea to the west and the Altai mountains in the east. In terms of area, Kazakhstan is the ninth largest country in the world. It is located primarily in Central Asia, about 5.4 percent of the country, however, attributed the extreme eastern Europe. The border with Russia is in the north of the sole and over 7,000 kilometers long. In the South Kazakhstan borders Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan and on the southeast by the People's Republic of China. This border is almost 1,600 kilometers long. In ancient times built on the present territory of Kazakhstan various empires. Sun was among a large part between the 6th and 8th century to the realm of "On-Ok", the Western Göktürks. In the 13th century the Mongols under Genghis Khan fell in the later Kazakhstan and conquered it. Shortly after conquered the area in the 15th century, the Uzbek Timur, the northern steppe nomads from the Khanate of Bukhara could separate them; under a local Dschingiskhaniden dynasty they built the Kazakh Khanate. This struggle for independence, the Kazakhs fought against the introduction of Islam, as they wollten.Im stay connected to old traditions continue to 17th and 18th century Kazakhstan was part of a Mongolian dominion again. Before the Kazakh people reporting to the Russian tsars, they belonged to nomadic steppe-dominated realm of Zungars. Kazakhstan was declared in 1936 as a Kazakh SSR into an independent union republic within the Soviet Union. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the country declared itself independent as the Republic of Kazakhstan on December 16, 1991st The presidential republic governed since 1991 by Nursultan Nazarbayev. The counting of the Turkic Kazakh and Russian Slavic languages associated with the declared independence official languages and the former capital Alma-Ata renamed Almaty. In 1997, the government and parliament seat was moved to Aqmola. The city was proclaimed as the official capital and a year later in Astana ( "capital") renamed.
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