Salerno (German also Salern), in ancient Salernum (Latin), is a port city on the Gulf of Salerno, in southern Italy. The first settlement was v in the ninth century. Chr. Instead. The town's name dates back to the Roman colony and the military camp Salernum. Salerno is today the capital of the province of Salerno in Campania and since 1970 Universitätsstadt.In the years after World War II, Salerno became a big city, which it has remained until today (31.12.2015) with 135,261 inhabitants. Even in ancient times Salerno won importance as a trading center and pushed back the purely military function. In medieval times Salerno reached a comprehensive recovery with its trade relations with Sicily and North Africa. Salerno was archbishop headquarters since the 983rd In the Middle Ages, the city was famous for its medical school. Only with the establishment of industrialization an upswing phase was reinitiated. As before, the port is influential with its global container handling. Outstanding buildings are the Castello di Arechi, which partly dates back to Norman times, and the cathedral with its mighty tower. Here there is the tomb of Saint Gregory VII. And probably the Evangelist Matthew.