Aliano is a municipality in the southern Italian province of Matera in the Basilicata region. On the 96 km ² of the municipality Aliano live today 1008 inhabitants (conditions on 31 December 2015). The town of Aliano is located on a steep ridge in the middle of the so-called Calanchi (fold mountains) between the river valleys of the Sauro and the Agri; Due to the loamy ground, the houses are always threatened by erosion. The municipality is bordered by the municipalities of Gorgoglione and Stigliano (Matera province) and Missanello, Roccanova and Sant'Arcangelo (Potenza). The place was made famous by the book Cristo si è fermato a Eboli ("Christ only came to Eboli", 1945) by Carlo Levi, in his experiences and impressions during his exile in 1935/1936 in what he called for discretion reasons 'Gagliano' Location describes. The book was partly filmed in 1978 by Francesco Rosi at the original locations. In the 1990s Aliano was proclaimed Parco Letterario Carlo Levi ("Literature Park Carlo Levi") under the auspices of UNESCO. Today there is a Museo Carlo Levi with photos and documents, a museum with 20 paintings Levis in the former town hall of the place and a multimedia show in Levi's former home to the famous exile. In addition, the folkloric Museo della Civiltà Contadina ("Museum of Rural Culture") shows evidence of the tedious peasant life described by Levi. In the cemetery Levis grave is to be visited. The number of inhabitants of the village has dropped from 2,288 in 1951 to 1,284 according to the statistics of the year 2001.