Iraq

Iraq

The Republic of Iraq (Arabic جمهورية العراق, DMG Ǧumhūriyyat al-'Irāq, Kurdish كۆماری عێراق Komari Êraq) is a country in Western Asia. The north of the country is the Autonomous Region of Kurdistan, which runs its own parliament and its own official language, Kurdish. Iraq is bordered by Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Turkey, Iran and the Persian Gulf and includes most of the located between the Tigris and Euphrates "Mesopotamia" Mesopotamia, where the earliest civilizations of the Near East have emerged, as well as parts the adjacent desert and mountain regions. He is ranked among the Mashreq countries. Today's Iraq was created in 1920 from the three Ottoman provinces of Baghdad, Mosul and Basra. From 1921 to 1958, the Kingdom of Iraq was, in 1958 the king was deposed by a military coup and proclaimed a republic. From 1979 to 2003, the country of Saddam Hussein was dictatorial rule, the country waged wars against neighboring Iran and Kuwait. Iran war was supported by the Soviet Union and the United States. A multinational invasion force ( "coalition of the willing") led by the United States overthrew Saddam Hussein's regime in 2003, but did not succeed in it, build stable structures for the post-war era. The country's infrastructure has been largely destroyed. After the declared end of the war occurred during the occupation of Iraq 2003-2011 civil war-like conditions, thousands of terrorist attacks, acts of war and violent crime, both of different Iraqi groups against each other and against the Western occupation troops. They demanded especially among Iraqi civilians an unknown number of deaths and injuries. 2010 most of the foreign troops was withdrawn after a relative stabilization of the country had been reached. The withdrawal was completed on 18 December 2011th Today, Iraq is de facto divided into ethnic zones. In June 2014, Islamic militants of ISIS captured as part of the Iraq crisis in 2014 parts of the national territory. According to the Pentagon about 55,000 square kilometers were in January 2015 under the control of IS, representing about 13\% of the territory. Iraq is in the world ranking of countries with the most natural resources ranked fourth