Helmstedt (Low German Helmstidde) is the county town of the district Helmstedt in Lower Saxony (Germany) and an independent municipality. It is between Elm and Lappwald, about 36 km east of Brunswick and about 45 km west of Magdeburg on the border with Saxony-Anhalt. During the division of Germany here (checkpoint Helmstedt) between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic and the western terminus of the transit routes to West Berlin was on the federal highway 2, the most important border crossing. The counterpart as a border station was the Helmstedt Station. Helmstedt has buildings that date back to the time of the Romanesque. These examples from the Renaissance period and more than 400 professors and half-timbered houses from the 16th and 17th centuries. The former university and Hanseatic town is situated in the Elm-Lappwald. The city is also a member of the cultural Association of Cities of the "New Hanse".