Gotha is the fifth largest city of Thuringia and county town of the district Gotha. Gotha had from 1640 to 1825 seat of the duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and 1826 capital and seat of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. In 1820, the German insurance industry was established in the city with Gothaer insurance. In Gothaer Tivoli, the Socialist Workers Party of Germany founded in 1875 (SAP), which later changed its name to SPD. The city was a center of German publishing, so the publisher were Verlag Justus Perthes, founded in 1785, created especially cartographic publications (maps, atlases, wall maps u. A.). In the past, Gotha was in the rivalry to Weimar, the other center of the Ernestine dynasty. While Weimar was the artistic center, Gotha was his scientific counterpart, which today testify including the Natural History Museum and the Observatory Gotha. The baroque castle Friedenstein dominates the city skyline. It was until 1825 residence of the Dukes of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, and from then until 1918 those of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. A larger company from Gotha was the Gotha Coach Factory, which produced mainly trams and planes. In Gotha today takes the tram Gotha or Thüringerwaldbahn one of the last interurban trams in Germany (after Waltershausen and Tabarz). Gotha is the seat of the Thuringian University School of Public Administration; two of the three departments are located at this site.
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