Archsum

Archsum (Danish: Arksum) (Frisian: Arichsem) is a village on the North Sea island of Sylt. Archsum was until 1970 an independent municipality and after its incorporation part of the until 2008 existing municipality Sylt east, which in turn on 1 January 2009 in the newly formed municipality Sylt rose. Archsum is located about six kilometers southeast of Westerland between the villages Morsum and Keitum and is managed by the Office Landscape Sylt. On an area of ​​679 hectares live around 300 inhabitants (as of 2001). Archsum means settlement of the Arke or Erke. Archsum was first mentioned as Arxum in 1462 in the interest book of the Bishop of Schleswig. Excavations in the 1930s revealed that a settlement existed since the Neolithic. Mootjis Küül at the Nössedeich is home to the approximately 5000-year-old gang tomb Merelmerskhoog. Some are still old residential hills, such. B. the Firstklent, to see. Known are the Hünenbetten Archsum. In addition, the Erdwall Archsum Castle was in the place that was largely demolished in 1860. Between 1969 and 1974, archaeologists dug into ancient Archsum and found Archsum as Troy of the North. Stone Age and Bronze Age records were found, revealing an almost 2,000-year settlement and a village that existed between 700 and 1000 AD. Agriculture and seafaring formed the livelihood of Archsumer residents for a long time. In 1611, 38 farms were counted and about 150 people lived in the village. In 1709 there were 42 farms and eight independent cottages. At the time, 25 men and 53 families sailed on the North Sea as sailors. The dependency on this branch of activity was particularly evident in Archsum. With the successes, especially in whaling, the population increased to 1745 to 259, including 40 sailors. In the coupling 1787 54 homeowners were counted. Many preserved houses are those of the Sylt captains. When the height of seafaring was exceeded, the number of farmsteads dropped to 45 by 1850. Agriculture yielded very little, so poverty grew. In this episode, the population fell to 129 until 1952, and thus still below the level of 1611. Under a land reclamation program backed by the National Socialist blood and soil ideology in 1937 the Nössekoog could be diked and populated (see, inter alia, Adolf Hitler Koog, Hermann-Goering-Koog). For example, before the Second World War, the population increased in 1939 to 306 people. However, half of this was accounted for by the Reich Labor Service, which housed workers for the construction of the Nössedeich here in camps. Storm surges repeatedly haunted Archsum. Bad crops also contributed to the decline in population. In 1961 Archsum became a health resort. Tourism has been of great importance since that time.

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