Alexandria or Alexandria (Greek Ἀλεξάνδρεια Alexándreia, after Alexander the Great; Arabic الإسكندرية al-Iskandariyya) is, with more than 4.3 million inhabitants (2009) and a stretch of 32 kilometers along the Mediterranean coast, to Cairo, the second largest city in Egypt and the total largest city with direct access to the Mediterranean. It has the largest seaport of the country, be effected on about 80\% of Egypt's foreign trade. As a major industrial center it is supplied by pipeline of crude oil and natural gas from Suez. Alexandria was 331 v. Chr. By Alexander the Great founded on the site of the ancient Egyptian settlement Rhacotis. The city developed into an important center of the Hellenistic world and the Roman and Byzantine Egypt. Ancient Alexandria was known for its lighthouse (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and for its Great Library. After the Islamic conquest of Egypt 641 AD.. And with the founding of Cairo, they lost their meaning. degenerated into a cut-off from the hinterland fishing village early 19th century, Alexandria succeeded thanks to the construction of Mahmudiakanals and the blossoming of the lucrative Egyptian cotton trade the re-rise to a major international commercial center. In the port of Alexandria held since 1994 underwater archaeological investigations were won by the new findings on the predecessor settlement Rhacotis and Ptolemaic era.
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