Czech Republic (officially Czech Republic, Czech Česká republika hear? / I or Česko) is a landlocked country in Central Europe with around 10.5 million inhabitants. It consists of the historical lands of Bohemia (Czech Čechy) and Moravia (Czech Morava) as well as parts of Silesia (Czech Slezsko). The country is bordered to the west by Germany, on the north by Poland, on the east by Slovakia and to the south by Austria. Capital and metropolis of the country is Prague, more Großtädte are Brno, Ostrava, Pilsen, Liberec and Olomouc. The Czech kingdom was established in the late 9th century by the union of the Duchy of Bohemia and the Margraviate of Moravia. From the two countries in 1085 the Kingdom of Bohemia was formed. This had a special position in the Holy Roman Empire and ruled by dynasties such as the Přemyslid and Luxembourgers large areas of continental Europe. In the wake of the rise of the Habsburgs and the Thirty Years' War, the area was part of the Habsburg monarchy and remained so until the end of the First World War and demise of Austria-Hungary. 1918 Czechoslovakia was founded. In the spring of 1939 it was occupied by Nazi Germany and divided. Slovakia was made a separate state and the Czech part of the country to the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. In 1945, the country was liberated by the Red Army, with the support of the Czechoslovak army in exile by the Nazi regime and occupied. 1948 took over the so-called February revolution, the Communist Party (KSČ) power. As a satellite state of the Soviet Union, the country became part of the Soviet bloc and a member of the Warsaw Pact. The reform movement Prague Spring was crushed in 1968 by troops of the Warsaw Pact. 1989 was re-established democracy after the Velvet Revolution under Vaclav Havel. Today's Czech Republic was established on 1 January 1993 split of Czechoslovakia. In 1999 she became a member of NATO and on May 1, 2004 Member of the European Union. Czech Republic is an industrial state; its GDP per capita is the highest of the former Comecon members.
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