Canada (English and French Canada) is a North American country located between the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west and north to the Arctic Ocean. The only land border is that to the United States in the South and Northwest. The surface to Canada is Russia's second-largest country in the world. The Settlement by Indians (First Nations) began at least 12,000 years ago, the Inuit followed around 5,000 years ago. From the late 15th century Europeans landed on the East Coast and began around 1600 with the colonization. Here, first the French and English sat tight. During this time the name "Canada" spread, which was originally a name for a Iroquois village. France ceded its New France in 1763 from to Britain. In 1867, three British colonies formed the Canadian Confederation. With the Statute of Westminster, the country received in 1931 legislative independence, more constitutional links with the United Kingdom were lifted 1,982th Nominal head of state is Queen Elizabeth II., Which is represented by a governor general. Canada is a based on the Westminster system of parliamentary democratic federal state and a parliamentary monarchy. The official languages ​​are English and French. The independence aspirations of the province of Quebec, the position of the French-speaking Canadians and the rights of indigenous peoples (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) are the central lines of conflict within the state and society. The issues of climate change and environmental protection, immigration policy, and commodity dependence and the relationship with its southern neighbor, from the cultural and historical reasons, there is a mixed picture featuring public debates.