Brazil (Portuguese Brasil, according articulation of Brazilian Portuguese [bɾaziu̯] pronunciation? / I) is the area and population fifth largest country in the world. It is the largest with over 200 million inhabitants, also the most populous country in South America, whose area it occupies 47.3 percent. Brazil except Chile and Ecuador common with every South American country. The first traces of human settlement by Paleo-Indians date back several thousand years. After the discovery of America and the division of the South American continent by the Treaty of Tordesillas Brazil was a Portuguese colony. This more than three centuries of colonial times, in the immigrant verschiedenster origin (forced or voluntary) came to Brazil, contributed significantly to the ethnic diversity of the present state. After gained independence in 1822, followed by a period of constitutional monarchy followed, the country was in 1889 as a United States of Brazil a republic. After the period of military dictatorship from 1964 to 1985, the country returned to democracy with a presidential system of government. The name Brazil goes to the Portuguese name pau-brasil the brazilwood tree (Caesalpinia echinata), which was an important export product for the period of the early colonization of the forests of the Atlantic coast, back. Brasa means in Portuguese "glow" and "hot coals"; the adjective brasil ( "glutartig") refers to the color of the wood, which, when cut, red lights (brasilin) ​​and has been used in Europe for dyeing fabrics.