Austria (officially the Republic of Austria) is a Central European landlocked country with approximately 8.7 million inhabitants. The neighboring countries are Germany and the Czech Republic to the north, Slovenia and Italy to the south, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. Austria is a democratic and federal republic, in particular a semi-presidential republic created after the First World War as German Austria and rebuilt after the Second World War in its present form. His nine provinces have since 1921: Burgenland, Carinthia, Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Vorarlberg and Vienna. Vienna is also the nation's capital. Austria is a founding member in 1961 established Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and, since 1995, a European Union country. The country is bordered by the Bohemian Massif and the Thaya in the north, the Karawanken and the Styrian hills in the south, the Pannonian plain to the east and the Rhine and Lake Constance in the West. More than 62 percent of its national territory is formed by alpine mountains. The term Austria is first handed down in his old German form Ostarrichi from the year 996th In addition, the Latin form of Austria was in use. 1156 Austria was the Holy Roman Empire an independent duchy. After the extinction of the sex of the Babenbergs 1246, the House of Habsburg prevailed in Austria in the struggle for domination. Known as Austria area included the entire Habsburg monarchy and later the 1804 constituted imperial Austria and the Austrian half of 1867 established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary later. Today's Republic was established in 1918, after losing to Austria-Hungary World War II, when the Allies prevented the union of German Austria with the Weimar Republic. The so-called "Anschluss" in 1938, the change of the corporate state dictatorship in Nazi, Austria was until 1945 part of the German Reich. established by the victors of World War II again as an independent state, Austria declared after the end of the Allied occupation in 1955 its permanent neutrality and joined the United Nations.
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